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Yejong / 예종 (Goryeo)
#1
[Resim: yejong.png]

Yejong (Dogum Tarihi: 1079-1122, Taht Dönemi: 1105-1122) Kore’nin Goryeo Hanedanligi’nin 16. hükümdariydi.Kral Sukjong ve Kraliçe Myeongui’nin ogluydu.Babasi Sukjong’un ölümü üzerine tahta geçti.1062’da verdigi ilk emirleri arasinda imparatorluk için yeni idari dagilimlari göze çarpiyordu.O Taoizm’in önemli bir destekleyicisiydi. Önceden ise egemen din Budizm’di.Hükümdarligi sirasinda Taoist adetleri Çin’in Song Hanedanligi tarafindan tanitildi.Bazi Taoist adetler ve kurumlari kabul ettirdiler ve gelismeye basladilar.Gerçi 12. yy baslari Kore için oldukça duragan bir dönemdi.Yejong kralligin kuzeyindeki Jurchen saldirilari nedeniyle anlasma yapmak zorundaydi. Jurchens tarafindan 1115’te kurulan Çin ile rekabet halinde olan Jin Hanedanligi’nin diplomatik tekliflerini reddetmistir.Hatta Jin’in Kore’nin kuzeyine yaptigi saldirilarina karsilik, Jin’e büyük bir ordu göndermistir.1114’de Yejong Song Hanedanligi’nin imparatoru Huizong’dan Goryeo’nun baskenti Gaeseong’daki sarayina Çin enstrümanlari göndermesini istedi.Böylece Goryeo sarayinda Konfüçyüs törenleri yapilabilecekti.Anlasilan o ki Huizong bu istegi yanlis anlamisti.Saray ziyafetlerinde kullanilabilecek enstrüman seti göndermisti.(Huizong’un 1110’da sahip oldugu büyük kral statüsü politik nedenlerle Yejong’a verildi.).Iki yil sonra yani 1116’da Yejong Konfüsyüs töreninde kullanmak için yeniden ensturuman istedi ve bu konuda Huizong’a bir dilekçe yolladi.Huizong müzik enstrümanlarinin yani sira (yayue enstrümanlari, toplam 428 tane) yani sira kiyafetler ve bilgi içeren kaynaklar da yolladi.Kore’nin geleneksel “Aak (Kore saray müzigi)”i baslamis oldu.1114 ve 1116 hediyeleri Goryeo'nun Jurchen'e karsi sadakatini kazanma girisiminin parçasiydilar ancak bu strateji basarisiz oldu; Goryeo tarafsiz kaldi ve Kaifeng baskenti song Jin'in 1127'de eline düstü, Huizong da rehin olarak kuzey Mançurya'ya sürgün edildi.Hükümetin egitimini artirmak için,Yejong Yanghyon'go (Yetenekleri egitmenin temelleri) adli yedi özel Kurali egitimini sadakatle tasiyan Gukjagam'a yerlestirdi.Ayni zamanda oraya yedi enstitü kurdu, ordu egitimini gelistirmek için.Bu Kore hükümdarliklarinin savas sanatlari ve ordu egitimi verdiklerinin ilk resmi kaydidir.Aistokrasi ve ordu arasindaki gerilimden dolayi bunlar onun 1133'teki ölümünün ardindan müfredattan çikarildi.Yejong ayni zamanda botanikle ugrasirdi, Kore'nin her yerinden nadir bitkileri toplardi ve o çiçeklerle Çin ile nadir çiçeklerin takasini da yapardi.Yine onun hükümdarliginda seramik endüstrisi gelisti ve ilk defa Kore seramikleri Çin eramiklerini geride birakti.Yejong'un hükümdarligi güçlü danismanlar ve memurlar üstünden kurulmus ve bu yüzden karmasaya açik bir hükümdarlik olarak karakterize olmustu.Buna Kuzy'de Jurchen'e karsi çekilen askeri zorluklar da eklenince o kitaplarina ve Daoist ritüellerine geriledikçe geriledi.Yejong ölünce yerine oglu Injong geçti.Injong Yejong'un kraliçesinin ogluydu; Incheon'daki Yi Klani'nin basi olan Yi-Cha-gyom'un ikinci kizindan olmaydi. Yejong'un gerçek kayitlari (sillok) üç tarihçi tarafindan (içlerinde Asil Günlkçü olarak atanan Konfüçyist egitmen Kim Bu-Sik de olan) 1123ten baslayarak kaydedilmistir.


Çeviri: esra köksal, Lasfiniel. Yardimi için Tugba ablaya tesekkürler...


English
Yejong Of Goryeo

Yejong of Goryeo (1079-1122, r. 1105-1122) was the 16th monarch of the Korean Goryeo dynasty.He was the son of king Sukjong and Queen Myeongui.He succeeded Sukjong upon his father's death.Among his first decrees, in 1106, was an order breaking up the empire into new administrative divisions.He was a great promoter of Daoism, preferring its precepts over those of the previously ascendant court religion of Buddhism.During his reign, Daoist court rituals were introduced from Song Dynasty China; many Daoist practices and institutions were established and began to flourish.Although the early 12th century was a relatively stable period for Korea, Yejong did have to deal with Jurchen incursions in the northern part of the kingdom. He refused the diplomatic overtures of the Jin Dynasty, a rival to China that had been founded in 1115 by the Jurchens, instead sending a large army to repel Jin attacks in Korea's northern regions.He is also noted for his sponsorship of the arts. In 1114 Yejong sent a request to the Song Dynasty Emperor Huizong asking for Chinese musical instruments to be sent to his palace in the Goryeo capital of Gaeseong, so that he could conduct Confucian rituals in the Goryeo court.Huizong, apparently misunderstanding the request, sent a set of musical instruments to be used for royal banquet music. (Huizong had, in 1110, for political reasons, granted Yejong the status of "genuine king," and Goryeo had since then conducted itself with great deference to China.) Two years later, in 1116, Yejong sent another petition in which he reiterated his request for ritual instruments, whereupon Huizong sent an even larger gift of musical instruments (this time yayue instruments, numbering 428 in total), as well as ritual dance regalia and the appropriate instructions, beginning Korea's tradition of aak.It appears that the gifts of 1114 and 1116 were part of an attempt to gain Goryeo's loyalty against the Jurchen, but this strategy proved unsuccessful; Goryeo remained neutral and the Song capital of Kaifeng fell to the Jin in 1127, with Huizong being deported as a captive to northern Manchuria.In order to promote government education, Yejong established a foundation called the Yanghyon'go (Foundation for the Training of Talents) and stationed seven specialized lecturers at the Gukjagam who faithfully carried out this education.He also added a seventh division to the institution in 1104, providing military training. This was the first recorded occasion of a Korean dynasty providing formal training in the military arts. Due to tensions between the aristocracy and the military, it was removed from the curriculum soon after his death, in 1133.Yejong was also interested in botany, gathering rare plants from all over Korea and sending them to China in exchange for many Chinese plants.Also during his reign, the ceramic industry flourished, with Korean designs predominating over Chinese ones for the first time.Yejong's reign was characterized by a dilution of his power by strong government advisors and other officials who often squabbled among one another.This, combined with the military difficulties with the Jurchen in the north, caused him to retreat further and further into his books and Daoist rituals.Yejong was succeeded upon his death by his son, Injong. Injong was the son of Yejong's queen, who was the second daughter of Yi Cha-gyom, the head of the Yi clan of Incheon.Yejong's Veritable Records (sillok) were compiled by three historians (including the Confucian scholar Kim Bu-sik, who had been appointed as Royal Diarist, or ji, in 1121) beginning in 1123.
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#2
bu güzel konuyu bizlerle paylastigin için tesekkür ederim canim Smile
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#3
güzel ve açiklayici bir anlatim ellerinize saglik.Onay


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#4
konu için tesekkürler
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