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Gongmin-wang / 공민왕 (Goryeo)
#1
Gongmin-wang / 공민왕 (Goryeo)


Adi: 공민왕
Dogum Tarihi: 1330
Ölüm Tarihi: 1374
Tahtta Kaldigi Süre: 1351-1374


Yasami

Kral Gongmin 1351’den 1374 yilina kadar hüküm sürmüstür. O Kral Chungsuk’un ikinci ogludur.
Goryeo , Mogollarin Kore’yi isgalinden beri Mogollara bagliydi. Kral chungnyeol’dan beri süren gelenege uyularak Gongmin Yuan hanedanligina(mogollara) rehin olarak gönderildi. Orada çok zor yillar geçirdi.Mogol prensesi Noguk ile evlendi ve Goryeo'ya dönerek tahta çikti.
Yuan hükümdarligi 14. Yüzyilin baslarinda parçalanmaya basladi, çok geçmeden 1368’de Mogol hanedanligi degisti.

Yenilikleri

Yuan hanedanliginin yikilmasindan sonra 1238 yilindan beri Kore yarimadasindan süren Mogol istilasi bitmis, Gongmin ‘in büyük çabalari ile yeni bir Goryeo hükümeti kurulmustur. Ilk isi Mogol taraftari soylulari ve ordu mensuplarini görevlerindne almistir. Görevinden uzaklastirilan bu insanlar Kral’a karsi bir darbe girisiminde bulunmuslardir fakat basarisiz olmuslardir. Yüksek dereceli bi memur olan Jo Il-sin hükümeti devralmayi denedi, ama bu isyan, genel Choe Yeong tarafindan engellendi.
Goryeo Mogollarin istilalari esnasinda, 1250ler ve 1270ler arasinda Kore'nin müstemilatli kuzey vilayetlerini kaybetmis tir. Goryeo ordusu bu vilayetleri kismen Ya ji chundna geri aldi, Mogol larin hizmetindeki Koreli bir memur ve oglu Yi Seonggye onlara tesekkür etti. . General Yi Seonggye and Ji Yongsu , Liaoyang’da bir mücadele baslatti.

Ikinci olarak iç problemlerle ilgilendi. Toprak bagisi sistemini kirdi. Tarimsal karanin muazzam çogunluguna sahip oldu Basa çikilmasi zor seçkinlerle birlikte Mogol taraftari Memurlarla mücadele etti. Kral Gongmin, kara reformu denemesinde , onun reformlarini yerine getirmek için görevlendirilen memurlardan ihanet ve hile gördü.

Üçüncü problem yarimadayi rahatsiz etmekte olan Wokou'dur, bir ara kosu haydutlari olduklari için ve arada kan dökülmedigi için sorun yoktu. Ama iyi organize olmus askeri birlikler ülkeye baskin yapmaya baslamislardi. Kral Gongmin General Choe Yeong'un ve Yi Seonggye'ni, onlarla savasmasi için görevlendirir.

Dördüncü problem Red Turban adindaki toplulugun Goryeo’yu 1359 ve 1361 yillarinda iki kere isgal etmis olmasiydi. 1361’de Red Turban toplulugu kisa bir süre için Kaesong’u ele geçirdi. Fakat generaller Choe Yeong, Yi Seonggye, Jeong Seun, Yi Bang-sil tarafindan kurtarildi.

Ölümü

Kraliçe Noguk ve kralin arasindaki iliskinin, çok yakin olmasina ragmen tahtin varisi olacak bir çocuklari olmamist. Ikinci es almasi konusundaki tekliflere ragmen Kral bu önerileri kabul etmedi. Kraliçe Noguk, 1365'te hamile kaldi fakat dogum sirasindan öldü,bu olay kralin bunalima ve zihinsel kararsizligina düsmesine sebep oldu. Politikaya ilgisiz olmaya basladi ve kesis Shin Don’u ülkeyi yönetmekle görevlendirdi. Ancak alti yil sonra Shin Don bu konumunu kaybetti.

Goryeo'nun köklü bürokrasisi reform gayretleri için kral Gongmin'i asla affetmedi. Direkt bir tehdit olusturacak Yuan Hanedanligi ve Çin ile olan iliskilerini kestigi için onu elestirmislerdir. Kral daha fazla reform yapabilirdi fakat denemekten korktu.
Kaesong'un azledilen mogol destekçisi, Kral’in konumunu korumak için mücadele etti ve kazanmasi için onlara yardim etmis olan mogollarin baglari yenilemeyi umdu, yani bir yerde onlarin varligini tuttu.
Hong Ryun Ryun isimli bir gencin Gongmin’in cariyelerinden biriyle iliskisi vardi ve gongmin bunu ögrendiginde çok öfkelendi.Gongmin onu öldürebilir düsüncesiyle;ondan önce davranip Kral Gongmin uykusunda Hong Ryun Ryun ve adami Choe Man-saeng tarafindan 1374’te öldürüldü.
Onun öldürülmesinden sonra yüksek hükümet görevlisi Yi In-im devlet yönetimini ele alir ve 11 yasindaki King u’yu tahta geçer.

Goryeo’da Kral Gongmin’in sanatsal becerileri iyi bilinirdi. Bu döneminin en iyi sanatçisi olarak anilir. Ayrica çok iyi hat çalismalari yaptigi biliniyor.


Çeviri: wiseacre_daisy


Kral Gongmin ve Kraliçe Noguk

Kral Gongmin 2005 yapimi olan Shin Don dizisinden tasvir edilmistir.
Shin Don dizisinde tasvir edilen Kral gongmin.
[Resim: eponine77.jpg]



English:
Gongmin of Goryeo

Goryeo had been a dependency of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty since Mongol invasion of Korea. Starting with King Chungnyeol, prospective rulers of Korea married Mongol princesses and were customarily sent to the Yuan Court, in effect, as hostages. As per this custom, King Gongmin spent many years in the Yuan court, being sent there in 1341, before ascending the Korean throne. He married the Mongol princess Queen Noguk (노국대장공주, 魯國大長公主). But in the mid-14th century Yuan was beginning to crumble, soon to be replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368.

Reform

With the disintegration of Yuan, which had dominated the Korean peninsula since the Mongol invasions of Korea of 1238, Gongmin began efforts to reform Goryeo government. His first act was to remove all pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officers from their positions. These deposed people formed a dissident faction which plotted an unsuccessful coup against the king. High official Jo Il-sin even tried to take over the government, but this rebellion was put down by general Choe Yeong.
During their invasions, between the 1250s and the 1270s, Mongols had annexed northern provinces of Korea and incorporated them into their empire as Ssangseong (쌍성총관부, 雙城摠管府) and Dongnyeong (동녕부, 東寧府). In 1356s, Goryeo army retook these provinces partly thanks to defection from Yi Ja-chun, a minor Korean official in service of Mongols in Ssangseong, and his son Yi Seonggye. In addition, Generals Yi Seonggye and Ji Yongsu led a campaign into Liaoyang.
A second internal problem was the question of land holdings. The land-grant system had broken down, and Mongol-favoured officials, along with a handful of landed gentry, owned the vast majority of agricultural land, which was worked by tenant farmers and bondsmen. However, King Gongmin's attempt at land reform was met with opposition and subterfuge from those officials who were supposed to implement his reforms, as they were landowners themselves.
The third problem was that the Wokou who had been troubling the peninsula for some time were no longer hit-and-run bandits, but had become well-organised military marauders raiding deep into the country. Generals Choe Yeong and Yi Seonggye were called upon by Gongmin to combat them.
The fourth problem were the Red Turban troops, which invaded Goryeo two times in the years(1359 and 1361). In 1361, the Red Turban troops occupied Kaesong for a short period, but escaped with bare life by general Choe Yeong, Yi Seonggye, Jeong Seun, Yi Bang-sil.

Death

Although the relationship between Queen Noguk and the king were very close, they failed to conceive an heir for many years. Despite suggestions of receiving a second wife, the king ignored these requests. Queen Noguk became pregnant in 1365 but died during the child birth which led to the King's depression and mental instability. He became indifferent to politics and entrusted a great task to monk Sin Don (신돈, 辛旽). However, after six years, Sin Don lost his position.
Goryeo's entrenched bureaucracy never forgave King Gongmin for his reform efforts. They interpreted his policy of cutting all ties with the Yuan and establishing relations with Ming China as a direct threat to their status and feared that further attempts at reform might yet be made. Kaesong's deposed pro-Mongol faction battled to protect its position and hoped to renew ties with the Mongols who had helped them gain and hold their wealth in the first place. One of the young men, Hong Ryun (홍륜) had relations with one of Gongmin's concubines, which led to Gongmin's anger. So before Gongmin could kill him, Hong Ryun and Choe Man-saeng killed Gongmin in his sleep.
After his death, a high official Yi In-im was assume the helm of government. and Yi enthrone the eleven-year-old King U.

As An Artist

King Gongmin was well known for his artistic skills and are referred to as one of the best artists of the Goryeo period. He was also well-known for his calligraphy works. Example of his works are 《천산대렵도(天山大獵圖)》(국립현대미술관) 《노국대장공주진(眞)》 《석가출산상(釋迦出山像)》 《아방궁도(阿房宮圖)》《현릉산수도(玄陵山水圖)》 《동자보현육아백상도(童子普賢六牙白象圖)》.
Alıntı


Bu Konudaki Mesajlar
Gongmin-wang / 공민왕 (Goryeo) - tarafından wiseacre_daisy - 09-06-2009, Saat: 16:21
RE: Gongmin / 공민왕 (Goryeo) - tarafından daesoo - 09-06-2009, Saat: 16:28
RE: Gongmin / 공민왕 (Goryeo) - tarafından hayalkuşu - 09-06-2009, Saat: 16:32
RE: Gongmin / 공민왕 (Goryeo) - tarafından Yang mi kyeong - 09-06-2009, Saat: 16:50
RE: Gongmin / 공민왕 (Goryeo) - tarafından kvsr.u - 09-06-2009, Saat: 16:51
RE: Gongmin / 공민왕 (Goryeo) - tarafından şaheste - 09-06-2009, Saat: 17:00
RE: Gongmin / 공민왕 (Goryeo) - tarafından wiseacre_daisy - 09-06-2009, Saat: 17:10
RE: Gongmin / 공민왕 (Goryeo) - tarafından esra köksal - 10-06-2009, Saat: 18:51
RE: Gongmin-wang / 공민왕 (Goryeo) - tarafından Eun~Kyung - 01-12-2010, Saat: 19:56
RE: Gongmin-wang / 공민왕 (Goryeo) - tarafından iremruzgar - 16-02-2011, Saat: 14:36
RE: Gongmin-wang / 공민왕 (Goryeo) - tarafından merve_b2st - 12-06-2011, Saat: 17:15



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